ICAO 2013 Environmental Report - page 149

149
chapter 4
global emissions
icao environmental report
2013
Governance
Governance of the offset credit mechanism is also crucial.
Conflicts among members based on differing points of
view may arise during the design and implementation of
the mechanism. Experience and know-how are necessary
to construct and implement an effective mechanism. A
practical solution would be to set up a committee of
experts. When doing so, neutrality and expertise will be
essential criteria for participation. This Experts Committee
should be independent of ICAO and its members should be
specialists in their fields, including: carbon markets, finance
and investment, technology, and energy and legal issues.
They should not represent any interested parties and need to
participate only in their personal and professional capacities
as experts in their field. A major task of the Independent
Experts Committee would be to submit its expert views
and recommendations to ICAO for consideration on such
issues as, the eligibility criteria of credits and the review
of the offset by airlines. ICAO should use the committee’s
submission to guide its decision making.
Cost Transfer
The cost of offset credits is also a crucial issue. Carbon costs
are caused by the creation of external carbon emissions
when fuel is burned, and are therefore theoretically part of
the fuel cost. Accordingly, these additional costs should be
passed on to passengers. Using ICAO’s carbon calculator,
per passenger emissions from a return flight from Tokyo to
New York (business and first class) is 3.1 tonnes, which is
US$ 0.8 per pax, when half of the emissions are offset by
using the current CER. The economic burden is actually
not that large, but awareness of carbon costs is important.
One of the practical options for collecting carbon costs is
by way of a “carbon surcharge”. It shows the carbon cost
explicitly and is therefore transparent.
Because international aviation is indispensable for world
economic growth, it needs to be fully sustainable. The
flexibility of all options developed to manage and offset
carbon emissions from international aviation operations will
be key to ICAO’s ongoing pursuit of “Destination Green”.
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