ICAO 2013 Environmental Report - page 160

icao environmental report
Aircraft-Related Technology Development
The implementation of the latest available emissions reduction
technologies for aircraft have significant benefits. Some
measures in this category, such as the introduction of winglets
or the purchase of new aircraft, are not only justified on the
grounds of environmental benefits, but also in light of economic
and strategic considerations.
Alternative Fuels
The anticipated gains in efficiency from technological and
operational measures will not completely offset the overall
emissions that are generated by the expected growth in
traffic. To achieve the sustainability of air transport, other
strategies will be needed to compensate for the emissions
growth not achieved through efficiency improvements. A
promising approach toward closing this GHG emissions
mitigation gap is the development and use of sustainable
alternative fuels for aviation.
Drop-in fuels are substitutes for conventional jet fuel and are
completely interchangeable and compatible with conventional
jet fuel. The reduction in GHG emissions from the use of drop-
in fuels developed from renewable, sustainable sources is the
result of the combined lower GHG emissions from the extraction,
production and combustion of the fuel. Sustainable drop-in
alternative fuels produced from biomass or renewable oils offer
the potential to reduce life-cycle GHG emissions and therefore
reduce aviation’s contribution to global climate change.
Over the short and medium-term horizon, aviation will be
heavily dependent on drop-in liquid fuels and the development
and use of sustainable alternative fuels will play an active role
in improving the overall security of supply, and will stabilize
fuel prices.
Information on the use of alternative fuels for civil aviation, as
well as the document,
ICAO Review: Sustainable Alternative
Fuels for Aviation
are available in the ICAO Global Framework
for Alternative Aviation Fuels (GFAAF)
. Information regarding
worldwide initiatives on the development and deployment
of sustainable alternative fuels for aviation is also available
through the GFAAF.
chapter 5
State Action Plans To Reduce Aviation CO
Retrofitting and Upgrade Improvements To Existing
Aircraft – Federal Republic of Germany Action Plan
“Retrofit of Air Berlin’s Boeing B73N fleet with
Blended Winglets.
The wing tips of the B737 (-700/-800) fleet were retrofitted
with Blended Wings. The measure increases the aspect
ratio of the wing, thus reducing lift-induced drag and
increasing performance.
Due to the implementation of this measure, 337,500 l/plane
p.a. were reduced. This represented a 3% fuel reduction per
flight, the equivalent of 85,000 kg/plane of CO
(representing 3% per flight). Implementation of these
measures began in 2002, and the Stakeholders involved
were the airlines and the Boeing Company.
The anticipated co-benefits of this measure are better
climb performance and a noise reduction by about 6.5%.”
For more information on the Germany Action Plan,
please visit:
Alternative Fuels Measure – Development –
Argentina Action Plan
“A multidisciplinary group has been set up in Argentina
with participants from government authorities, regulatory
agencies, technological and agricultural institutes, oil
companies, air operators and chambers, in order to find the
best alternative, which will allow a comprehensive analysis
of the different alternatives, advantages and disadvantages
for the production in Argentina of biojet fuel in line with
international quality standards. The stakeholders involved
are ANAC, Aerolineas Argentinas, YPF, INTI, INTA, CARBIO,
SSTA and the Ministry of Interior and Transport.”
Developing Alternative Fuels Measures –
United States Action Plan
“The United States Government has taken significant steps
during the last five years to facilitate the development and
deployment of “drop-in” alternative aviation fuels. Some
of the progress and successes in the development of
sustainable alternative fuels for aviation conducted by the
USA are mentioned below:
• On 1 July 2011, the standard-setting organization
ASTM International approved a bio-derived sustainable
alternative jet fuel known as HEFA, for commercial use
up to a 50% blend level.
• In late 2011 two US commercial airlines flew their first
domestic flights powered by HEFA biofuels.
• Research projects are conducted focusing on using
sustainably grown wood energy crops for transportation
fuels (University of Washington).
• In April 2012, the Air Force completed testing and
certification of the entire fleet on Fischer-Tropsch
synthetic fuel and continues to certify the fleet on hydro-
processed renewable jet (HRJ) and alcohol-to-jet (ATJ
biofuel blends)”
For more information on the USA Action Plan, please
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