ICAO 2013 Environmental Report - page 202

202
icao environmental report
2013
NegotiationsonaFutureGlobal
ClimateChangeAgreement
By
ICAO Secretariat
In 1992, the international community agreed on a framework
for addressing global warming through the adoption of the
United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change
(UNFCCC). The Convention covers a broad spectrum of
issues, including reducing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions
from human activities and efforts to adapt to, and cope with,
the effects of climate change. It is the ultimate objective of
the Convention to stabilize greenhouse gas concentrations
"at a level that would prevent dangerous anthropogenic
(human induced) interference with the climate system."
The UNFCCC entered into force in 1994; today, 195 Parties
having ratified it.
The Kyoto Protocol to the UNFCCC, adopted in 1997, shares
the Convention’s objective, principles and institutions
and sets legally-binding GHG emissions limitation and
reduction commitments for 37 industrialized countries and
the European Union. The resulting emissions reductions
amount to an average of 5% below 1990 levels over the
five-year first commitment period 2008-2012.
Emissions from international aviation include over-flight of
multiple States and the high seas, making them difficult to
assign to a particular State. Recognizing the complexity of
how to address these emissions, the Kyoto Protocol excluded
them from the national totals of individual countries and from
their reduction/limitation commitments. Specifically for the
Kyoto Protocol, Article 2.2 requires industrialized countries
to pursue the limitation or reduction of GHG emissions from
international civil aviation, working through ICAO.
Moving Toward a Future Global
Climate Change Agreement
At the climate change conference in Montreal in 2005,
Parties to the Kyoto Protocol initiated a process to consider
further commitments of industrialized countries for the
period beyond 2012. The resulting decision established
the “Ad-hoc Working Group on further commitments for
Annex I Parties under the Kyoto Protocol” (AWG-KP).
Two years later, at the UN climate change conference in
Bali in December 2007, Parties adopted the Bali Roadmap,
that established a process to enable the full, effective and
sustained implementation of the Convention through long-
term cooperative action up to and beyond 2012. Discussions
following the mandate of the Bali Roadmap took place under
the “Ad-hoc Working Group on Long-term Cooperative
Action under the Convention” (AWG-LCA) and focused on
five key elements: a shared vision for long-term cooperative
action; mitigation efforts by both developed and developing
countries; adaptation efforts; investment and financial
needs; and development, deployment, dissemination and
transfer of technology.
Following the climate change conference in Bali, Indonesia
in 2007, AWG-LCA and AWG-KP continued their work in
accordance with relevant mandates. Since the last ICAO
Assembly in 2010, the major climate change conferences
under the UNFCCC and Kyoto Protocol were the Cancun
conference in December 2010 in Mexico, the Durban
conference in December 2011 in South Africa, and the
Doha conference in December 2012 in Qatar.
At the 2010 climate conference in Cancun, Mexico, Parties
agreed on broad issues to help developing nations deal
with climate change. It encompassed finance, technology
and capacity-building support to help such countries meet
urgent needs to adapt to climate change, and to speed
up their plans to adopt sustainable paths to low emission
economies that could also mitigate the negative impacts
of climate change.
At the 2011 climate change conference in Durban, South
Africa, Parties launched the work towards the adoption of
a global and legally-binding agreement on climate change
by 2015, for implementation from 2020. This work takes place
under the “Ad-hoc Working Group on the Durban Platform
for Enhanced Action” (ADP). Under the ADP process, two
streams of work were initiated: 1) on development of an
agreement applicable to all Parties in 2015, to come into
effect from 2020; and 2) on consideration of the options
and ways for increasing the levels of ambition to close the
gap between the current pledges of Parties and those
required by 2020 to achieve the 2˚C target.
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